Dr Penny Hebgin-Barnes with the assistance of Christopher Parkinson
The House and its Owners
Audley End House is built upon the site of the Abbey of Walden, founded in the twelfth century. In 1538, after the Dissolution, Henry VIII granted abbey’s estates to Thomas Audley who was subsequently created Baron Audley of Walden. His grandson Thomas Howard was created Baron Howard of Walden in 1597, Earl of Suffolk in 1603 and Lord High Treasurer of England in 1616. Wishing to reside in a property which reflected his high status, Thomas built a mansion on the site of the former Abbey of Walden between 1603 and 1616, its size and splendour rivalling that of palaces such as Hampton Court. His successors found the cost of maintaining such a huge property ruinously expensive and during the eighteenth century large parts of the house were demolished.1 In 1762 it was inherited by Sir John Griffin Griffin (1719-97), who had a distinguished military and political career during which he was awarded honours and titles including Knight Companion of the Order of the Bath in 1761.2 He commenced restoring the house to its present condition, which included the building between 1768 and 1772 of a new chapel in the upper storey of the northwest end, designed by John Hobcraft in the ‘Strawberry Hill Gothick’ style. A chapel had been created c.1725 when most of the floor had been removed from the northern Great Chamber to create a double height chamber, but Hobcraft restored this floor and converted the music gallery behind the north screen in the Great Hall into a chapel vestibule with a raised platform for the family pew, an open fireplace and a fan-vaulted ceiling.3
The house remained in the ownership of Sir John Griffin until his death, whereupon it was acquired by Richard Neville. It remained in the Neville family until shortly after the Second World War, when it was sold to the Ministry of Works from whom it passed to English Heritage, the current owners.
Stained Glass by William Peckitt
As part of the fitments for the new chapel, a contract was drawn up for two painted windows.4 This begins: “Audley End Octor 9th 1770 An Agreement made by Sir John Griffin Griffin Knight of the Bath and William Peckitt of York Glass Painter & Stainer. Namely the said Willm Peckitt undertakes to execute in the Best Manner in colours in Glass Two Windows Agreeable[?] to the Designs given him by Sir John Griffin, viz Our Saviours Last Supper and the other the Offering of the Eastern Magii”. The Last Supper was to be delivered and installed in May 1771 under the personal supervision of Peckitt who was to be paid £135. The Magi window was to follow in May or June 1772 at a cost of £155 and 10 shillings. Peckitt’s total fee was to be £260 for the two windows and £30 10s for two journeys to Audley End and the transportation there of the glass. Peckitt’s Commission Book listed both windows in entries dated June 1771 and April 1772.5
The two windows were installed as planned in the new chapel by 1772, the Last Supper (Fig. 1) in the north-facing window (nI) at the liturgical east end of the chapel and the Adoration of the Magi in the west-facing window (wI).6 They were based on watercolour designs (or vidimuses) by Biagio Rebecca (c.1735-1808) who also provided many oil paintings for the house. The Last Supper is composed of seven main lights with a pointed ‘Gothick’ apex. This fits into the rectangular chapel north window with false tracery. Both Peckitt windows were removed from the chapel c.1906 and stored in sacks in the stable block at Audley End. The Last Supper window was found to be more or less complete although badly broken and was reassembled in its original position in a replica of its ‘Gothick’ frame in 1962 by G. King and Son.7 The Adoration of the Magi window was broken beyond repair, probably while stored in the stable block. A few fragments from this window are held in storage at Audley End.8
The vidimuses by Rebecca in the Audley End Scrapbook p.70 (Fig. 2 bottom) shows that it consisted of eleven main lights with five separate ‘Gothick’ pointed apexes. The glass filled the entire oriel window, which is composed of seven main lights with three “Gothick” apexes in the main west-facing wall of the bay and two pairs of lights in its north- and south-facing side walls. The Audley End Scrapbook contains views of the oriel window with Peckitt’s painted glass from three different vantage points within the chapel.9
The Last Supper Window (Fig. 1) with its bright pot metals is considered to be one of Peckitt’s finest works.10 It can be compared with Rebecca’s two vidimuses for it in the Scrapbook (Fig. 2 top). Overall these two are very similar with minor variations in the positions of the figures and a pitcher. The most obvious difference is the lamp hanging above Christ, which has three branches in the first design and at least six in the second. Neither vidimus contains the small central panel below Christ displaying the date and the donor’s crest and chain of the Order of the Bath, nor the names of the designer and glass-painter in the bottom corners.11 The present window is based on the first design which depicts the three-branch lamp with its obvious Trinitarian symbolism. It is possible that this design was preferred because the lamp fitted well with the Order’s motto of ‘Tria Juncta in Uno’ (Three joined in one) and its insignia of the three crowns and the monarch’s three kingdoms symbolised by the rose of England, thistle of Scotland and sceptre topped with the fleur-de-lis of France. Sir John Griffin Griffin was demonstrably proud of his membership of the Order since he chose it to represent him in the window in place of a conventional donor inscription or armorial, and the portrait of him painted in 1774 by Rebecca shows him wearing the cloak of the Order along with its chain and pendant.12
The pair of vidimuses by Rebecca showing two versions of the now lost Adoration of the Magi window (Fig. 2 bottom) differ in that one is the mirror image of the other, with the Virgin and Christ Child facing the liturgical east end of the chapel in the first. This design was chosen, as is shown by a watercolour of the chapel’s interior (Fig. 2 centre) and an illustrated ground plan13 and confirmed by the surviving fragments now in storage. Two of the four largest of these depicting a horse’s head and part of white and orange striped garment come from the far-right side of the window. The other two fragments have no exact equivalent in the vidimus, but some changes were evidently made to the finished window.14
Stained Glass from Chicksands Priory
The west-facing oriel window (wI) which formerly housed Peckitt’s Adoration of the Magi now contains a large number of panels composed using fragments previously at Chicksands Priory, Bedfordshire. Chicksands Priory was founded as a Gilbertine house c.1150. Following the Dissolution it was sold to Richard Snow, whose son Daniel conveyed it to Peter Osborn in 1576.15 In the mid-eighteenth century the house was modernised by Isaac Ware and in 1814 General Sir George Osborn (1742–1818) employed James Wyatt to make further substantial alterations.16 The Hon. John Byng visited the Priory in 1789 and recorded that the greater part of the cloisters were entire and had been glazed with painted glass.17 In 1806 Magna Britannia noted that Sir George Osborn had filled unspecified windows of the Priory with ancient stained glass.18 In 1827 it was stated that three of the ancient windows above the staircase were filled with old stained glass, collected by Sir George Osborn.19 According to an account from 1866, “Wyatt’s staircase …. is lighted by three cloistral-shaped windows looking into the quadrangle. The central one is filled with some good painted glass, brought from different places – neighbouring churches, there is good grounds for suspecting – heterogeneously put together, but producing a very rich effect. The other two are armorial windows of very recent composition; and serve, at any rate, to facilitate a comparison between the respective merits of old and new glass”.20 In 1908 the Victoria County History of Bedfordshire recorded that the staircase window, which was a copy of the cloister windows, was filled with broken fragments of old glass, collected from churches in the neighbourhood, while other pieces came from Notley Abbey.21
When the Royal Air Force occupied the Priory in June 1940, the glazing in the staircase windows was removed for its own safety and stored in two crates at Chicksands. In 1969 the crates were moved to the Society of Antiquaries in London and then to the studio of G. King and Son in Norwich. Three composite panels of fragments remain in a first-floor oriel window of the Priory.22
All the Priory glass was described by St John Onslow Gamlen in his 1974 privately printed brochure, illustrated with two colour and several black and white plates provided by Dennis King.23 These images show that the panels’ arrangement was typical of the late-eighteenth century, with the emphasis on creating eye-catching symmetrical patterns. To achieve this, pieces of medieval glass were cut into geometric shapes and leaded together according to colour with no regard for subject matter or original composition. Such arrangements, together with the antiquarian accounts quoted, above indicate that the glass was collected and installed in the cloister windows before the end of the eighteenth century, although at least some of it was later moved to the staircase windows, probably during Wyatt’s building campaign.
There is no evidence that any of the Priory’s pre-Dissolution glazing survived long enough to be incorporated into General Sir George Osborn’s scheme, although a monastic provenance for a group of grisaille pieces in 2f (2) is likely. Osborn did not record the locations from which he obtained any of the glass, but the shield quarterings of Snow and Cavendish in 1h (2) must have been commissioned for the Priory by Richard Snow who acquired the building in 1540. A series of four armorial ovals (1a (2), 1b (2), 1j (2) and 1k (2)) have inscriptions showing that they were produced in 1862 for General Sir George Osborn’s grandson Sir George Robert Osborn, 6th Baronet of Chicksands Priory and his first wife Charlotte Elizabeth. Almost all the glass is English.
The date when the Chicksands glass was installed at Audley End is not recorded, but it was probably shortly after 1975.24 The composition of this window is typical of King’s skilful assemblages, dismantling and rearranging the panels removed from Chicksands to produce a new symmetrical display of panels combining pieces of a similar date into ensembles which mirror one another in the eleven corresponding lights of the window. It is possible to identify and reconcile nearly all the major and most of the minor pieces at Audley End with the illustrations and descriptions in Gamlen’s brochure, revealing that some related pieces that were separated at Chicksands have been reunited, while others that do not belong together have been convincingly combined, notably the display of shields, chaplets, clasps, roses and crowns in the three central lights. Some of the geometrical patterns of fragments created when the glass was installed at Chicksands were preserved and reused, often with minor rearrangements. The present location of those few pieces recorded by Gamlen that are not at Audley End is unknown.
nI (Liturgical east window). (Fig. 1)
This window can be viewed from the chapel vestibule.
The Last Supper. The scene is divided by six mullions and two transoms into two main rows of seven panels and five lights at tracery level. Christ holding a sop is seated at the centre of the table with St John the Evangelist to his left. A dish of lamb is on the table in front of Christ with loaves of bread to either side and a pitcher standing on the floor below St John. The high-ceilinged room has two large pilasters in the rear wall, a floor paved with coloured marble slabs and a three-branch lamp hanging above Christ in the central light. At the bottom of this light is a cartouche framing a round panel bearing Sir John Griffin Griffin’s crest of a talbot’s head sable langued gules on a torse.25 The crest is set on a blue ground and framed by an elaborate gold chain of the Order of the Bath incorporating its insignia of three closed crowns and three emblems comprising a sceptre with a fleur-de-lis finial and foliage springing from its shaft, a red rose on one side and a thistle on the other. This emblem between three small crowns appears on an oval pendant suspended from the collar, its border inscribed with the Order’s motto ‘TRIA JUNCTA IN UNO’. On either side of the pendant is the date ‘17’ and ‘71’. In the bottom left panel of the window is the inscription ‘Biaggio Rebecco Inven:’ (Biagio Rebecca designed [this window]) and in the bottom right panel ‘Guli: Peckitt pinx: & tinx:’ (William Peckitt painted and stained [this window]). Executed in white and coloured glass, enamel paints and silver stain. Dated 1771. The window is complete but badly shattered with numerous bonded breaks.
Dimensions: h 3.85m approx, w 4.07m.
wI (Liturgical north window). (Fig. 3)
Unfortunately, this window is not currently visible to visitors as the chapel floor is too weak to allow public access.
The following diagram shows the panel numbering.
Each main light and the three central tracery lights (1a-1k, 2a-2k, A5-A7) contain two or three panels set on a ground of plain modern rectangular quarries, and a cusped head with 19th-c Tudor roses and fragments in the spandrels.
Dimensions of each lower main light (1a-1k): h 1.18m approx., w 0.38m approx.
Dimensions of each upper main light (2a-2k): h 1.00m approx., w 0.38m approx.
1a (1). (Fig. 4 bottom)
Lozenge-shaped panel composed of 4 individual diamond quarries.
- Initials ‘W’ and ‘E’ joined by a tasselled cord. 16th-c.
- Shield of Warenne, Chequy or and azure26, ensigned by a peer’s coronet between ‘H’ and ‘3’ (for Henry III). Beneath is an unfurled parchment suspended by two red spots of sealing wax bearing the inscription: ‘John Plan= tagenet Erle Warren & [Su]rrey’. Small number ‘84’ is scratched in the right corner. 17th-c. This quarry and others in 1b (1) and 1j (1) are from an extensive chronological series of the shields of over 150 noblemen from the reigns of William I to Henry VI according to the small scratched numbers still legible on some of them.
- Armorial of Boteler of Biddenham (Beds.). Shield with 4 quarters: 1st Boteler, gules a fess countergobony argent and sable between 6 crosses flory or27; 2nd Molesworth, gules an escutcheon vair between 8 crosses crosslet or28; 3rd Kirton, gules a fess and in chief a chevron or29; 4th Peacock, gules a chevron between 3 peacocks in their pride argent.30 Helm, crest out of a mural coronet or a boar’s head proper, and mantling. 17th-c. John Boteler of Biddenham married Joan, heiress of Walter Mouldesworth. Their descendant Richard married Grace, heiress of Allen Kirton. Richard’s grandson William Boteler married Anne, heiress of Thomas Pecock. Their son William was alive in 1586.31 Biddenham is eleven miles from Chicksands.
- Initials ‘E’ and ‘D’ on either side of a flowering plant with a tasselled cord for a stem.32 Late-16th-c.
1a (2). (Fig. 4 top)
Oval armorial of Gage: Gage quartering St Clere, per fess in chief, gyronny of 4 argent and azure a saltire gules, in base, azure a sun in splendour or33, dimidiating Knightley, per fess in chief ermine, in base paly of 6 or and gules.34 Scroll inscribed ‘COURAGE SANS PEUR’. Inscription ‘Per amicum fidelem. H.G. datum. C.E.O. An. 1862’ (Given to C.E.O. by a faithful friend H.G. in the year 1862). H.G was the Hon. Henry Gage (d.1875) who married Sophia Knightley. C.E.O. was Charlotte Elizabeth Osborn (d.1866), the first wife of Sir George Robert Osborn.35 This is the companion piece to 1b (2).
Rectangular panel of green and yellow fragments cut into geometric shapes and arranged in a pattern. Mainly 14th-c. This along with the similar pieces 2b (1), 2j (1) and 2k (1) formed the lateral borders of a panel at Chicksands Priory.36
Round medallion comprising a central rectangular blue foliage quatrefoil between four yellow foliage demi-roundels set on a plain red ground. Early 14th-c.
Trefoil light containing a 19th-c Tudor rose on a ground of coloured fragments, mainly 16th-c.
1b (1). (Fig. 5)
Lozenge-shaped panel composed of 4 individual diamond quarries.
- Shield of Morvill, azure an eagle displayed barry argent and gules37, suspended by a guige from a hook between ‘W’ and ‘C’ (for William the Conqueror). Parchment inscribed: ‘John Morvyle Lord Morvyle’. Small scratched number ‘12’(?). 17th-c.
- Shield of the Duke of Brittany, chequy or and azure within a border gules semy of lions passant guardant or and a canton ermine38, ensigned by a ducal coronet between ‘R’ and ‘2’ (for Richard II). Parchment inscribed: ‘John Bretayne Duke of Bretayne and Erle of Richmond’. 17th-c.
- Shield of Normanville, argent on a fess double cotised gules 3 fleurs-de-lis of the first39, suspended by a guige between ‘H’ and ‘2’ (for Henry II). Parchment inscribed: ‘Thoams Normavile Lorde Normavile’. 17th-c.
- Shield of Richard Plantagenet, Earl of Cambridge, France modern and England quarterly within a border argent semy of of lions passant guardant gules (for purpure)40, ensigned by a ducal coronet between ‘R’ and a blank space.41 Parchment inscribed: ‘Richar(d) Plantagenett Erle of Cambridge’. 17th-c.
Oval armorial of Ker. Shield with 4 quarters: 1st augmentation for the Marquess of Lothian, azure a sun in splendour or42; 2nd Ker, vert on a chevron between 3 unicorns’ heads erased argent 3 mullets sable43; 3rd Ker, gules on a chevron argent 3 mullets of the first44; 4th McDonnell, or a lion rampant gules.45 Scroll inscribed ‘SERO SED SERIO’. Inscription ‘Amicae carae et honoratae. C.E.O datum per H.G An. 1862’. (Given by H.G. to a dear and honoured friend C.E.O in the year 1862). Charlotte Elizabeth Osborn was the daughter of Lord Mark Kerr, third son of the fifth Marquess of Lothian, and Charlotte McDonnell, Countess of Antrim.46 This is the companion piece to 1a (2).
Rectangular panel of green and yellow fragments as 2a (1). Mainly 14th-c.
Medallion as 2a (2) but the colours are yellow, white and green. Early 14th-c.
Trefoil light containing rose and fragments as A1. 14th-c and 16th-c.
1c (1). (Fig. 6 bottom)
Unidentified shield impaling Sapcote. The dexter side with 12 quarterings: 1st Warenne, chequy or and azure47; 2nd Cromwell, argent a bend azure and a chief gules48; 3rd Tateshall, chequy or and gules a chief ermine49; 4th Bernak, ermine a fess gules50; 5th Fitzalan, gules a lion rampant or51; 6th Earl of Chester, azure 3 garbs or52; 7th Hugh Lupus(?), azure a beast’s head erased53; 8th Dallingridge or Green(?), argent a cross engrailed gules54; 9th Roos, gules 3 bougets ermine55; 10th Rochford, quarterly or and gules a bordure sable bezanty56; 11th Rochford(?), gules an eagle displayed or57; 12th missing and replaced by a stopgap; overall a crescent gules.58 The sinister side, quarterly 1st and 4th Sapcote, sable 3 dovecots argent59; 2nd Denham, gules 4 fusils conjoined in fess ermine60; 3rd Arches, gules 3 arches, the two in chief conjoined argent, capitals and bases or.61 Mid to late 16th-c. The two sides may not belong together. The dexter side, which Gamlen described as incomplete, was evidently reconstructed by King but the present arrangement of the quarterings makes no heraldic sense since the Warenne Earls of Surrey (quarter 1) became extinct 200 years before it was created. The sinister side commemorates the marriage of a daughter or granddaughter of Sir Richard Sapcote of Elton (d.1542), son of Sir John Sapcote and Elizabeth Dinham and grandson of Joan Arches.62
1c (2). (Fig. 6 top)
Rectangular panel of fragments. Head and shoulders of St Alban facing right, clad in ermine robes and hat and holding a cross and rod. The alcove behind shows that he originally occupied a niche in the side-shafting of a canopy. This figure is similar in appearance to the mid-15th-c St Alban in the east window of the Beauchamp Chapel, Warwick.63 Seated lion from canopy shafting. Fragments of blue drapery ornately patterned with compartments containing birds. Gables from canopies. Four crowns from borders. 15th-c.
Lozenge-shaped panel composed of central ochre quatrefoil with geometrical design, set between four blue foliage sprays on red ground. 14th-c.
Round panel of fragments. Large scallop shell, which may have come from a figure of St James who was usually depicted as a pilgrim displaying them on his hat and scrip. Border pieces including foliage and part of a covered cup. 14th-c.
Rectangular panel of fragments, mainly of foliage with a few architectural pieces. Late 13th-c and early 14th-c.
Round panel of fragments with a small white central flower-head surrounded by eight red fragments arranged in form of petals on a yellow ground. 14th-c.
Trefoil light containing fragments including part of a blue perched bird from a border. Mainly 14th-c.
1d (1). (Fig. 7 bottom)
Round panels of fragments. Oval fragment from a tracery light depicting the head of Christ crowned by two angels whose hands remain. Set within a composite border of plain red fragments and four curving border pieces bearing a traceried strapwork design. Head 15th-c, the rest 14th-c.
1d (2). (Fig. 7 centre)
Rectangular panel of shield quarterings and armorial fragments.
Top section: upper part of a shield of Montagu quartering Monthermer, argent 3 fusils conjoined in fess gules a bordure sable quartering or an eagle displayed vert, beaked and legged gules.64 In 1740 Sir Danvers Osborn (1715-53), 3rd Baronet of Chicksands married Mary (d.1743), daughter of George Montagu, Earl of Halifax. The shield probably dates from the time of this marriage.
Second quarter from royal arms of England, gules 3 lions passant guardant or, 16th-c.
Middle section: unidentified quartering, barry argent and gules a martlet(?) sable65; Engayne(?), gules billetty a fess dancetty or66; Bilney(?), argent an eagle displayed vert beaked gules67; also fragments including ermine. 15th and 16th-c.
Bottom section: unidentified heraldic fragments a bordure argent charged with fleurs-de-lis or, gules a rose slipped or and azure 2 two crosses botonny or; quartering of St Martin(?), sable 6 lions rampant or langued and armed gules68; Warenne, chequy or and azure.69, 15th and 16th-c.
1d (3). (Fig. 7 top)
Roundel depicting sacred monogram ‘xpi’ for Christ, set on plain ground within twisted rope border. Upper part lost. Late 15th-c/early 16th-c.
2d (1). (Fig. 8 bottom)
Round panels of fragments. The Christ child lying in the manger emanating rays, from a Nativity scene, probably North European, 16th-c. A pair of female heads looking rightwards and wearing crespines, from a narrative scene. A left hand holding a large sceptre(?). Fragments of angels including a peacock-feathered wing. A hand holding plants. Several pieces bearing a diaper of contiguous circles containing flower-heads. All 15th-c.
2d (2). (Fig. 8 top)
Rectangular panels of fragments of inscriptions. From top, in blackletter script: ‘Ce/rn/is’(?), ‘la’(?), ‘[prophe]ta Ezechiel’ (prophet Ezekiel), ‘nitius i’(?), ‘llati lac p(ro) / sa(n)guine’ (?.. blood), part of a curving scroll ‘delect(us) i(n) quo’, and ‘ar’. The scroll accompanied the baptism of Christ. The full quotation was ‘Hic est Filius meus dilectus, in quo mihi complacui’ (This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased (Matthew 3:17, Vulgate)). In Lombardic script: ‘DE’, ‘CISTA’(?), ‘ANU’, ‘O’, ‘S’, and fragments with truncated letters. Blackletter fragments 15th-c, Lombardic fragments 14th-c.
Round panels of fragments as 2c (3). 14th-c and 16th-c.
The spandrels in the head of light 2d contain two large fragments. On the left is a yellow clasp from an early to mid-16th-c chaplet as in 1f (3). On the right is part of the scrollwork frame of a late-16th-c round panel ornamented with the frontal head of a youth or woman and clusters of fruit.
Trefoil light containing fragments including what appears to be a pauldron from a suit of armour with gilded Renaissance decoration. 14th-c and 16th-c.
1e (1). (Fig. 9 bottom)
Roundel depicting February and Aquarius. A fashionably-dressed youth empties two flagons of water onto the grass. Scroll with blackletter inscription: ‘februarius’. c.1500. Series of roundels depicting the Labours of the Months or Signs of the Zodiac were popular at this period, but it was less usual to combine them.70 Another roundel from the same series showing an old man warming himself beside a large cauldron remains in an oriel window at Chicksands Priory.71 Two roundels depicting the Labours of the Months for July and April in Abingdon Museum, Northampton, appear to come from the same workshop although probably not from the same series.72
1e (2). (Fig. 9 centre)
Rectangular panel of figures set on a ground of coloured fragments. Half-length frontal saint, possibly Christ, with raised hands. Heads of two female saints with veils looking rightwards, perhaps the Maries at the tomb. Two musicians truncated below the waist, set beneath cusped arches; one is a cowled woman playing a pipe and tabor, the other a youth playing a rebec. Upper part of a rectangular border piece showing a man playing a portable organ. Figures are set on a ground of coloured fragments. Early 14th-c apart from the three saints, c.1275-1310.
1e (3). (Fig. 9 top)
Round panels of fragments, the central piece depicting a monkey playing a pipe seated backwards on a lion, early to mid-14th-c.73 At this period such drolleries were often depicted in manuscripts, carvings and stained glass. This one would originally have been the centrepiece of a round medallion similar to that depicting a hare riding a hound and playing a shawm on a coloured ground at Great Gonerby (Lincs).74 The surrounding fragments include a small ochre roundel depicting three conjoined ivy leaves and various types of foliage, early 14th-c.
Round panel of fragments as 2c (3) except that the petals are ochre fragments and the ground blue. 14th-c.
Tudor badge of a red rose ensigned with a closed crown and set on a ground of quarry fragments within a green chaplet of leaves and fruit clasped with yellow and red roses. The panel is a composite assembled by G. King and Son using various pieces from several different panels at Chicksands Priory. Early 16th-c apart from 14th-c yellow roses and 15th-c quarries.
A5 (1). (Fig. 10 bottom left)
Roundel bearing the initial ‘T’ with a border decorated with annulets. 15th-c.
A5 (2). (Fig. 10 centre left)
Tudor rose badge, 16th-c, with a 14th-c composite circular border originating from at least two different Decorated tracery lights, ensigned with a 16th-c crown.
Fragment depicting a peasant chopping logs outside a cottage while a boy gathers sticks.75 Cut down into a semicircular shape from a larger unipartite panel. North European, 17th-c.
Oval achievement of Trenchard. Shield of Trenchard, per pale argent 3 pallets sable and azure76 quartering either Baynard, Clyfford or Rodney, or 3 eagles displayed gules.77 Shield suspended by guige from helm with torse and crest of a raised arm holding a sword and white mantling with red lining. Cartouche with inscription ‘Datum RE per amicum Honoratum FT.’ (Given to RE by an honoured friend FT). 18th-c or early 19th-c.
1f (3). (Fig. 11)
Armorial of the royal arms of England. On a jousting shield azure 3 fleurs-de-lis or (France modern) quartering gules 3 lions passant guardant or (England). Set on a ground of fragments of 15th-c quarries within a blue clasped chaplet ensigned with a closed crown. The bottom clasp bears an ‘H’ and the two clasps at the sides, which were originally the bottom clasps of other chaplets, bear the monogram ‘HR’ for Henricus Rex (King Henry VIII). The panel is a composite assembled by G. King and Son. Most of the components are of a high quality and would have originated from the domestic glazing schemes of wealthy subjects of Henry VIII. c.1525-50. A 14th-c canopy finial is placed above the crown.
Round panels of fragments as 2e (1) except that the petals are blue fragments and the ground yellow. 14th and 16th-c.
2f (2). (Fig. 12)
Composite round panel of fragments. Five 13th-c grisaille roundels depict birds and animals on a hatched ground: a seated ape, a pair of cranes grazing and a pair of strutting leucrotas, a mythical beast with a stag’s hindquarters, a lion’s chest and legs, a horse’s head and a mouth split open from ear to ear with a continuous jawbone instead of teeth. The pairs are of the same design in reverse. The ape and cranes are depicted in a naturalistic manner but the leucrotas are stylised with mask-like heads and foliage-frond tails. The four lobes containing sprays of stiff-leaf foliage accompanying these roundels are typical of 13th-century grisaille glazing, which consisted of repeated stylised foliage patterns often incorporating small coloured elements and serving as a frame for figures or narrative panels.78 However, the depiction of beasts and birds as decorative elements within a grisaille scheme is rare in surviving English glazing. Their appearance suggests that these roundels were modelled on illustrations in a 13th-century bestiary.79 They are more likely to have been produced as part of a grisaille glazing scheme for a monastic setting than for a parish church and may thus have originated from Chicksands Priory or Notley Abbey (Bucks).80 Other fragments in this panel include coloured stiff-leaf foliage fronds and flower-heads. 13th and early 14th-c.
A6 (1). (Fig. 10 bottom centre)
Roundel depicting sacred monogram combining the letters of Maria (Virgin Mary) from same series as A5 (1). 15th-c.
A6 (2). (Fig. 10 centre)
Roundel depicting a sun in splendour, a Yorkist badge. 15th-c.
A6 (3). (Fig. 10 top centre)
Armorial roundel. Unidentified shield, on a fess 3 fleurs-de-lis or, in chief 3 choughs(?) sable, in base a crescent or between 2 trefoils slipped sable. Supported by two grotesque-foliage hybrids, with a female bust sprouting foliage in place of a crest. Netherlandish, mid-16th-c. The roundel is set within a modern red border with a crown above it.
1g (1). (Fig. 13 bottom)
Roundel depicting Agnus Dei.83 The lamb lies on a book fastened shut with seven leather clasps, with a scroll issuing from its mouth inscribed ‘Ecce agn(us) dei’. The white ground is decorated with yellow crosses and the black background with white foliage. Mid-15th-c.
1g (2). (Fig. 13 centre)
Rectangular panel of fragments. St Anne teaching the Virgin to read. Both wear their hair in coiled plaits. St Anne wears a wimple. The Virgin wears a richly ornamented cote hardie and circlet. The Virgin is truncated at the waist and only St Anne’s head and hands holding the book remain; fragments of murrey drapery form her gown. Above are the heads of a bearded man looking upwards and a king turning leftwards with his right hand raised. Set on a ground of coloured fragments including drapery and quatrefoils and fragmentary covered cups from borders. St Anne and Virgin late-14th-c, the rest early to mid-14th-c.
1g (3). (Fig. 13 top)
Round panel of fragments. Two pink squirrels eating nuts, from borders. A variant of this border design depicting pink squirrels eating nuts in hazelnut trees appears in the east window of Selby Abbey and in Dewsbury Minster, both in Yorkshire.84 Other fragments include leaf finials, flower-heads and foliage. 14th-c.
Round panels of fragments as 2e (1). White, blue and ochre glass with black paint. 14th-c.
Royal arms of England. On a shaped shield azure 3 fleurs-de-lis or (France modern) quartering gules 3 lions passant guardant or (England).85 Set between two cut-down white rose-en-soleil Yorkist badges on a ground of yellow fragments, within a mauve chaplet clasped with red and white roses and ensigned with a closed crown. The panel is a composite assembled by G. King and Son. Mid-16th-c, crown 17th-c/early 18th-c.
A7 (1). (Fig. 10 bottom right)
Roundel bearing a monogram combining the initials ‘ID’ from same series as A5 (1) and A6 (1). 15th-c.
A7 (2). (Fig. 10 top right)
Tudor rose badge with a composite circular border, ensigned with a crown, as A5 (2). 14th-c and 16th-c.
1h (1). (Fig. 14 bottom)
Head of archbishop saint with cross-staff. Set on fragments of rays within circular border of red fragments. 15th-c.
1h (2). (Fig. 14 centre)
Rectangular panel of armorial fragments most of which originate from one or more shields of Snow and Cavendish. Two quarterings of Snow, per fess nebuly azure and argent 3 heraldic antelopes’ heads erased counterchanged argent crined or86 at top right and bottom left of panel. Two quarterings of Cavendish, sable 3 stags’ heads caboshed argent attired or87 at top left and bottom right. 1540-76. The London grocer Richard Snow (d.1553) married Elizabeth Cavendish c.1532 and acquired Chicksands Priory in 1540. This glazing was probably commissioned for the Priory by its new owners shortly after this date and certainly before 1576 when their son Daniel Snow conveyed it to the Osborn family.88 Between the quarterings is a vertical row of four bucks’ heads caboshed or, intruded from a different 16th-c shield.
1h (3). (Fig. 14 top)
Roundel depicting sacred monogram for Maria set on plain ground within a composite twisted rope border as 1d (3). Right side lost. Late 15th-c/early 16th-c.
Round panel of fragments. Agnus Dei lying on a closed book. Above is the pennon of the Resurrection and the top of Christ’s cross-nimbed head. Below is part of another book with a cover fastened with a clasp and bearing the blackletter inscription ‘Ecce agn(us) de…’ . Both books were originally held by now lost figures of St John the Baptist. 15th-c. At either side are displayed wings which originally flanked a North European armorial, 16th/17th-c.
Rectangular panel of fragments of inscriptions in blackletter script: ‘..oh(ann)es baptis…’ (John the Baptist), large letter ‘T’, ‘…Iohannes’, ‘d(omi)ni Will(ielm)i’, ‘…atris’, ‘s(an)c(t)a’(saint), a row of three minims, and a scroll on a black speckled ground: ‘ward aldiu(er)man’(?). Other fragments include pieces of a yellow stem with a white scroll wound around it. 15th-c and early 16th-c.
Round panels of fragments as 2e (1). 14th-c.
The spandrels in the head of light 2i contain two large fragments of a scrollwork frame and clasp, as 2d.
Trefoil light containing fragments. 14th-c and 15th-c.
1i (1). (Fig. 15 bottom)
Shield of Mildmay, per fess nebuly argent and sable 3 greyhounds’ heads couped counterchanged, collared gules studded or89 impaling quarterly, 1st and 4th Walsingham, gules bezanty a cross humetty countergobony argent and azure90, 2nd Writle, sable a bend argent wavy of the first a cross crosslet fitchy in chief of the second91, 3rd Bamme, ermine on a chief indented sable an annulet between 2 trefoils slipped argent.92 In 1546 Sir Walter Mildmay (d.1589) married Mary Walsingham (d.1576).93 1546-76.
1i (2). (Fig. 15 top)
Rectangular panel of fragments arranged similarly to 1c (2). Head and shoulders of a bearded saint facing right, perhaps an apostle. Gables from canopies and crowns from borders as in 1c (2). 15th-c. Set on a ground of coloured fragments, 14th-c.
Lozenge-shaped panel composed of a red roundel depicting a flower-head set between foliage sprays on a yellow ground. 14th-c.
Round panel of fragments. A quarry depicting a shield of Denys within a scrollwork cartouche, argent a fess nebuly gules between 6 fleurs-de-lis sable (for azure)94 impaling Green or Rotheram(?), 3 stags trippant or,95 late 16th/early 17th-c. A quarry depicting the badge of Henry VII or VIII, a crowned ‘h’, the curved stroke representing a dragon, late 15th/16th-c. A quarry depicting the crest of an alaunt’s head erased or collared argent on a torse within a yellow border, late 16th/early 17th-c. Several fragments of 16th-c Netherlandish unipartite panels, the three largest depicting the bare legs of a man lying on the ground, a reclining wimpled woman with raised hands in front of a window with trees outside, and part of another similar window probably from the same panel.
Rectangular panel of fragments very similar to 2c (2). Late 13th-c and early 14th-c.
Round panels of fragments as 2c (3). 14th-c.
Trefoil light containing fragments. 14th-c and 16th-c.
Lozenge-shaped panel composed of 4 individual diamond quarries.
- Shield of the Earl of Arderne, ermine a chief chequy or and azure,96 ensigned by a peer’s coronet between ‘W’ and ‘C’ (for William the Conqueror). Parchment inscribed: ‘Dodo Erle of Arden’. Small scratched number ‘14’. 17th-c.
- Shield of Lord Canfere, sable a fess argent,97 suspended by a guige from a hook between ‘H’ and ‘6’ (for Henry VI). Parchment inscribed: ‘The Lord Canfere’. Small scratched number ‘144’. 17th-c.
- Shield of Poynings, barry or and vert a bendlet gules quartering argent on a chief gules 2 mullets or,98 suspended by a guige from a hook between ‘H’ and ‘6’ (for Henry VI). Parchment inscribed: ‘Thom(a)s Poy- nings, Lord St John’. Small scratched number ‘151’. 17th-c.
- Shield of Touchet, ermine a chevron gules quartering gules a fret or,99 suspended by a guige from a hook between ‘H’ and ‘6’ (for Henry VI). Parchment inscribed: ‘Will(ia)m Titchet Lorde, Au- deley’. Small scratched number ‘149’. 17th-c.
Oval armorial of Osborn: shield with 4 quarters: 1st and 4th Osborn, argent a bend between 2 lions rampant sable armed and langued gules100; 2nd Danvers, gules a chevron between 3 mullets or101; 3rd Montagu quartering Monthermer, argent 3 fusils conjoined in fess gules quartering argent an eagle displayed vert legged gules102; on an escutcheon, argent a hand gules (denoting baronetcy). Scroll inscribed ‘QUANTUM IN REBUS INANE’. Inscription ‘Amico caro et honorato. G.R.O datum per K.K An. 1862’ (Given by K.K. to a dear and honoured friend G.R.O in the year 1862). G.R.O. was Sir George Robert Osborn, 6th Baronet (1813-92).103 For K.K. see 1k (2) to which this is the companion piece.
Rectangular panel of green and yellow fragments as 2a (1). Mainly 14th-c.
Medallion: as 2a (2) but the colours are sea-green, white and green. Early 14th-c.
Trefoil light containing rose and fragments as A2. 14th-c and 16th-c.
Lozenge-shaped panel composed of 4 individual diamond quarries.
- Unidentified shield, argent in chief a rose argent barbed and seeded or between 2 mullets or, and a cross saltire triple parted or impaling a mill-rind sable, ensigned with a fleur-de-lis. Probably 18th-c.104
2 and 3. Shield of the Haberdashers’ Company of London, barry nebuly of 6 argent (and azure) on a bend (gules) a lion passant guardant or.105 Probably 18th-c.
- Shield of Courtenay, 3 roundels 2 and 1, a label of 3 points.106 Set in an elaborate scrollwork surround incorporating inscription ‘Courtney’. Probably 18th-c.
Oval armorial of Kynaston. Shield of Kynaston, per fess in chief, ermine a chevron gules, in base, argent a lion rampant sable armed and langued gules107 impaling Bacon, gules on a chief argent 2 mullets pierced sable.108 Scroll inscribed ‘DEUS EST NOBIS SOL ET ENSIS’. Inscription ‘Per amicam fidelem. K.K. datum. G.R.O An. 1862’ (‘Given to G.R.O. by a faithful friend K.K. in the year 1862’). In 1855 Augustus Frederick Kynaston (1814-60) married Catherine Mary Bacon, evidently the K.K. (Kate Kynaston) of the inscription.109 This is the companion piece to 1j (2).
Rectangular panel of green and yellow fragments as 2a (1). Mainly 14th-c.
Medallion: ochre leaf quatrefoil roundel within a blue border. Early 14th-c.
Trefoil light containing rose and fragments as A2. 14th-c and 16th-c.
- J. Bettley and N. Pevsner, The Buildings of England: Essex, New Haven and London, 2007, pp.95-103; https://www.english-heritage.org.uk/visit/places/audley-end-house-and-gardens/history-and-stories/history/description/
- J.D. Williams, Audley End: the restoration of 1762-1797, Essex Record Office, 1966, pp.1-3. For Sir John’s career see https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1754-1790/member/griffin-john-griffin-1719-97
- Bettley and Pevsner, Essex, pp.101-2.
- The contract is reproduced in Williams, Audley End, pl. V.
- J. T. Brighton, ‘William Peckitt’s Commission Book’, Walpole Society, LIV, 1988, pp.389-90, 391. The Last Supper is entry no. 179 on f.22 and the Adoration of the Magi is no. 186 on f.23.
- Williams, Audley End, pp. 23, 31.
- Bettley and Pevsner, Essex, p.102; Brighton, Commission Book, p.448, and information supplied by English Heritage.
- According to Brighton, Commission Book, p.391, Dennis King believed that a head which he inserted in a window at Polstead church (Suffolk) might have come from this window.
- English Heritage, Audley End, Essex, Audley End Scrapbook pp.68, 70, 71. Created in 1809 by Richard Aldworth Braybrooke, 2nd Lord Neville, the scrapbook is a collection of engravings, plans and illustrations relating to Audley End House and its residents.
- Brighton, Commission Book, p.390.
- The latter omissions are unsurprising as it would be unusual to show the makers’ names in a vidimus.
- https://artuk.org/discover/artworks/sir-john-griffin-griffin-4th-lord-howard-de-walden-4259# The importance of the Order of the Bath to Sir John is confirmed by the three unsuccessful applications he made for it in 1758 and 1759.
- Audley End Scrapbook p.71.
- For example, the surviving horse’s head has a bridle that is omitted from the vidimus.
- St J. O. Gamlen, Ancient Window Glass at Chicksands Priory, Bedfordshire, London, 1974, p.5; https://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/beds/vol1/pp390-393 ; https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Snow-6700
- C. O’Brien and N. Pevsner, The Buildings of England: Bedfordshire, Huntingdonshire and Peterborough, New Haven and London, 2014, pp.132-4; https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1137590?section=official-listing ; Gamlen, Chicksands Priory, p.5.
- C. Bruyn Andrews ed., The Torrington Diaries, vol. IV, New York, 1938, p.116. https://archive.org/details/torringtondiarie009253mbp/page/n167/
- Quoted in Gamlen, Chicksands Priory, pp.5-6.
- Rev. I.D. Parry, Select Illustrations, Historical and Topographical, of Bedfordshire, London, 1827, p.117. https://archive.org/details/selectillustrat01parrgoog/page/n135/
- “Chicksands Priory. A Paper read June 20th 1866; by the Rev. Brook Edward Bridges, M.A., Vicar of Haynes”, Associated Architectural Societies Reports and Papers VIII part I 1865-66 p.334. https://archive.org/details/reportspapersofa08asso/page/334/
- Victoria County History of Bedfordshire vol. 2 (1908) p.273.
- The contents of the oriel window including a sundial of c.1700 are itemised in Gamlen, Chicksands Priory, p.22 and illustrated by CVMA inv. nos 007448 & 007449 https://www.cvma.ac.uk/jsp/location.do?locationKey=498
- Gamlen, Chicksands Priory, pls 1, 2 and 3 are reproduced in the feature ‘Stained Glass from Chicksands Priory’, Vidimus no. 62 (July/August 2012) www.vidimus.org/issues/issue-62/news/#news-11219
- A plan dated 1975 in the King archive shows the key elevation and tracery for chapel bay window reconstruction and perspective showing proposed alterations to the vaulting and west window (Norwich Record Office, KNG 2/2/18/16 https://nrocatalogue.norfolk.gov.uk/index.php/plans-53 ). The archive also includes two folders containing 117 black and white photographs of the Chicksands glass in King’s studio (KNG 3/1/1/4/19 https://nrocatalogue.norfolk.gov.uk/index.php/audley-end-essex ).
- The crest is shown in Sir John Griffin Griffin’s armorial in Charles Catton’s English Peerage of 1790: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Griffin,_4th_Baron_Howard_de_Walden#/media/File:Baron_Howard_de_Walden_coa.png ).
- Dictionary of British Arms: Medieval Ordinary, London, 4 vols, 1992-2014, (hereafter abbreviated to DBA), ii p.257.
- DBA iii p.400.
- B. Burke, General Armory of England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales, London, 1884, p.693.
- Probably for Kirton, who bore the similar coat argent a fess and in chief a chevron gules (DBA iii p.340).
- Burke, General Armory, p.783.
- ‘The Visitations of Bedfordshire, Annis Domini 1566, 1582, and 1634’, Harleian Society vol. XXI, 1884, pp.6-7 https://archive.org/details/visitationsofbed1921harv/page/n27/
- Gamlen, Chicksands Priory, p.12 suggested that the letters E.D. stood for Elizabeth Duncombe, wife of Sir Edward Duncombe of Bedford and daughter of Peter Osborn who obtained the Priory in 1576, although there is no evidence for this.
- Burke, General Armory, p.384. The Gage motto was ‘Courage sans peur’.
- Burke, General Armory, p.572
- D. Broomfield, The Heraldry of Audley End, 1992 p.25; https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Kerr-9628
- Gamlen, Chicksands Priory, pl. 1.
- Burke, General Armory, p.710.
- DBA ii p.207. John Duke of Brittany was Earl of Richmond from 1372 until his death in 1399.
- DBA iii p.518.
- DBA iv p.42
- The letter ‘R’ is an error since Richard Plantagenet was created Earl of Cambridge during the reign of Henry V in 1414 and executed for treason in 1415. His young son Richard (d.1460) then inherited the title, but since he inherited his uncle’s dukedom of York almost immediately afterwards the shield must refer to the father.
- Burke, General Armory, p.561. ‘Sero sed serio’ (‘Late, but in earnest’) was the motto of Ker, Marquess of Lothian.
- Burke, General Armory, p.560.
- Burke, General Armory, p.561.
- Burke, General Armory, p.638.
- Broomfield, Heraldry, p.25.
- DBA ii p.257.
- DBA i p.366.
- DBA iii p.12.
- DBA iii p.299.
- DBA i pp.131-2.
- DBA iv pp.109-10.
- Since the preceding quarter painted on the same piece of glass is the Earl of Chester, this may represent Hugh Lupus, earl of Chester (d.1101) who bore azure a wolf’s head erased argent (DBA iv p.134), although the animal looks more like a sheep.
- DBA iii pp.114-5.
- DBA ii p.212.
- DBA ii p.202.
- DBA ii p.137. Possibly alternatives are Godard, Lymesey or Prowes.
- The crescent was a cadency mark denoting a second son. It is painted in reddish enamel at the bottom of the second quartering’s argent field, the most visible place for it.
- Burke, General Armory, p.897.
- Ibid .
- CVMA inv. nos 011809, 011818.
- Burke, General Armory, p.696.
- This fragment is too incomplete to be identified. The bird resembles a crow more than a martlet.
- DBA iii p.314.
- DBA ii p.135.
- DBA i p.315.
- DBA ii p. 257.
- See K. Ayre, Medieval English Figurative Roundels, CVMA Great Britain, Summary Catalogue 6, 2002, no.83, p.26 for further discussion of this roundel and comparable examples elsewhere, some of which depict Aquarius pouring water onto the ground.
- CVMA inv. no. 007448. The scroll accompanying the figure is illegible in this image.
- Ayre, English Figurative Roundels, nos.358, 359 p.92; R. Marks, The Medieval Stained Glass of Northamptonshire, CVMA Great Britain, Summary Catalogue 4, 1998 p.155.
- Ayre, English Figurative Roundels, no.84 pp.26-7.
- P. Hebgin-Barnes, The Medieval Stained Glass of the County of Lincolnshire, CVMA Great Britain, Summary Catalogue 3, 1996 pp.108-9.
- Gamlen, Chicksands Priory, p.10 described it as Abraham sacrificing Isaac. Abraham walking to sacrifice, beside the boy Isaac carrying sticks, was a scene depicted in 16th and 17th-century unipartite panels, but the woodcutter is too young and shabbily dressed to be Abraham, who was always portrayed as an elderly patriarch.
- Burke, General Armory, p.1028.
- DBA ii p.167. John Trenchard (c.1586-1662) of Dorset, a younger son, made a very profitable marriage with Jane Rodney in 1612, but left only daughters so did not found a cadet branch of the Trenchard family https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1604-1629/member/trenchard-john-1586-1662
- R. Marks, Stained Glass in England during the Middle Ages, London, 1993, pp.129-33.
- The Audley End leucrotas can be compared with the example illustrated in the Aberdeen Bestiary, Aberdeen University Lib. MS 24 f.15v ( https://www.abdn.ac.uk/bestiary/ms24/f15v ). This manuscript was probably produced in an English monastery c.1200.
- St J. O. Gamlen, ‘Stained Glass from Notley Abbey’, Oxoniensia vol. VIII-IX 1943 p.113 recorded a tradition that some of the glass from Notley Abbey had been removed to Chicksands Priory, although there was nothing similar to the glass at Chicksands amongst the excavated fragments from Notley Abbey.
- DBA iv p.207.
- It was not mentioned by Gamlen who could hardly have overlooked it.
- Ayre, English Figurative Roundels, no.85 p.27 commented that ‘The lamb is very finely painted, endearing without being naive, and is reminiscent of a heraldic badge.’
- D. O’Connor and H. Reddish Harris, ‘The East Window of Selby Abbey, Yorkshire’, in Yorkshire Monasticism: Archaeology, Art and Architecture, British Archaeological Association Conference Transactions, XVI, Leeds, 1995, pp. 117–44; B. Sprakes, The Medieval Stained Glass of West Yorkshire, CVMA Great Britain, Summary Catalogue 10, forthcoming. For images of a squirrel border from Selby Abbey, now in the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool see CVMA inv. nos 017861, 018053.
- Gamlen, Chicksands Priory, p.24 described the shield as ‘of poor execution and smudgy’.
- Burke, General Armory, p.947.
- DBA iv p.154.
- Burke General Armory, p.685.
- DBA iii p.128.
- Burke, General Armory, p.1140.
- Burke, General Armory, p.44.
- Burke, General Armory, p.280.
- DBA i pp.291-2, assuming the pale yellow field is intended to be azure or vert.
- Burke, General Armory, p.23.
- DBA iii p.296
- Burke, General Armory, p.821.
- DBA ii p.268.
- Burke, General Armory, p.763. ‘Quantum in rebus inane’ was the Osborn motto.
- Burke, General Armory, p.262. Sir John Osborn, 1st Baronet, 1615-98 married Eleanor Danvers.
- Burke, General Armory, p.696. Sir Danvers Osborn (1715-53), 3rd Baronet married Mary Montagu; see panel 1d (2).
- Gamlen, Chicksands Priory, p.24 commented that this shield, which resembles an exercise in combining heraldic elements ‘has the appearance of being bogus of the 18th century’.
- Burke, General Armory, p.620.
- Burke, General Armory, p.234.
- Burke, General Armory, pp.575, 1166. The Kynaston motto was ‘Deus est nobis sol et ensis’.
- Burke, General Armory, p.38.